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Web Hosting - Redundancy and Failover
Among the more useful innovations in computing, actually invented decades ago, are the twin ideas of redundancy and failover. These fancy words name very common sense concepts. When one computer (or part) fails, switch to another. Doing that seamlessly and quickly versus slowly with disruption defines one difference between good hosting and bad.
Network redundancy is the most widely used example. The Internet is just that, an inter-connected set of networks. Between and within networks are paths that make possible page requests, file transfers and data movement from one spot (called a 'node') to the next. If you have two or more paths between a user's computer and the server, one becoming unavailable is not much of a problem. Closing one street is not so bad, if you can drive down another just as easily.
Of course, there's the catch: 'just as easily'. When one path fails, the total load (the amount of data requested and by how many within what time frame) doesn't change. Now the same number of 'cars' are using fewer 'roads'. That can lead to traffic jams.
A very different, but related, phenomenon occurs when there suddenly become more 'cars', as happens in a massively widespread virus attack, for example. Then, a large number of useless and destructive programs are running around flooding the network. Making the situation worse, at a certain point, parts of the networks may shut down to prevent further spread, producing more 'cars' on now-fewer 'roads'.
A related form of redundancy and failover can be carried out with servers, which are in essence the 'end-nodes' of a network path.
Servers can fail because of a hard drive failure, motherboard overheating, memory malfunction, operating system bug, web server software overload or any of a hundred other causes. Whatever the cause, when two or more servers are configured so that another can take up the slack from one that's failed, that is redundancy.
That is more difficult to achieve than network redundancy, but it is still very common. Not as common as it should be, since many times a failed server is just re-booted or replaced or repaired with another piece of hardware. But, more sophisticated web hosting companies will have such redundancy in place.
And that's one lesson for anyone considering which web hosting company may offer superior service over another (similarly priced) company. Look at which company can offer competent assistance when things fail, as they always do sooner or later.
One company may have a habit of simply re-booting. Others may have redundant disk arrays. Hardware containing multiple disk drives to which the server has access allows for one or more drives to fail without bringing the system down. The failed drive is replaced and no one but the administrator is even aware there was a problem.
Still other companies may have still more sophisticated systems in place. Failover servers that take up the load of a crashed computer, without the end-user seeing anything are possible. In fact, in better installations, they're the norm. When they're in place, the user has at most only to refresh his or her browser and, bingo, everything is fine.
The more a web site owner knows about redundancy and failover, the better he or she can understand why things go wrong, and what options are available when they do. That knowledge can lead to better choices for a better web site experience.
Making Effective Web Publishing Content (web publishing content) Web publishing content is important for a successful website. The content of a web site can often make or break that site, and it is important to make the site as attractive as possible, without over doing it. The content of a web site must be updated on a regular basis to keep web surfers coming back. Updated web content not only keep surfers coming back, but is also indexed more frequently by search engines. Fresh material is one of the key aspects of successful web publishing content and may generate fresh faces to a web site. One way to update the content of a web site is to update the existing web pages. Providing new content could include updating the conditions of a service, adding a new product or service, or creating a turnkey solution that will save the customer?s money or time. The web content should reflect the most recent information about a business. It is simple to provide changes to the web content, but many web sites provide updates without providing a notice. So, it is indicative to provide a notice of change each time web publishing content is changed. The announcements should be displayed prominently on the web site so that all surfers are able to see. It is also important to write articles for the web site. Articles can be seen as a valuable source for a web site?s success. The articles can be used to educate visitors on the web site and the business, while showcasing the owner?s expertise. Articles can be posted on the web site or used in a newsletter and submitted to other newsletters and web sites for syndication. This web publishing content can be used by other web site owners, which will provide leverage to the articles while generating publicity for the author and the author?s web site, while exposing them to new audiences. Writing an article seems simple enough, but there are many web site owners who are unable to find topics to write on. However, topics may be more evident than most web content writers may think. Topics for articles can be found in the news, in conversations with clients and colleagues, in networking events that are attended, and even in speeches. Blogging is also an excellent way to expand your list of web publishing content. Most web site owners can benefit from learning to blog, learning to start a blog, learning how to gain readers, and learning to make money from blogs. Blogging is becoming one of the most popular tools for showing new content on a web site. A web log can be used to answer web site visitors? questions, inform users about new services and products, and to keep them up-to-date on industry news. Blogs are a great resource for sharing opinions and displaying expertise. The blog can be used to help an owner connect with their web site visitors while generating new web site content. Updating web publishing content on a regular basis is vital to the success of a web site and very important for many web site owners. Articles, newsletter, and blogging should be a part of a regular business schedule, and will work perfectly in keeping a web site owner connected to their visitors. The quality of the web content on a web site can make it more attractive to users or can make it very unattractive to users. Owners should use their expertise to provide writing that is interesting and necessary. Visitors will appreciate the extra effort and owners will get the rewards of maintaining good web content for their users.
Great Free Gift Idea ? How to Get Official Presidential Greetings for a Loved One Are you ready for the most official gift idea ever proposed? Do you know someone who enjoys collecting authentic autographs and memorabilia? Or perhaps you know someone who has a good sense of humor and enjoys a gag gift on those special occasions? If this is the case, you may be interested in a great free gift idea?procuring an official presidential greeting for a loved one. Here is the run-down on how you can get a hold of this awesome gift idea. Believe it or not, getting an official presidential greeting is easier than you might think. Did You Know that the White House Offers Free Greetings? It is true?the White house offers free greetings for those very special occasions. These free greetings are official and recognized by the White House and the Office of the President. However, you should know that there are numerous restrictions to procuring these free presidential greetings. Unfortunately, the White House is not currently able to fulfill all the requests for official presidential greetings at this time. However, if you are truly interested in landing a free and very official presidential greeting for a loved one, it is worth giving it a try. As the old saying goes, nothing ventured, nothing gained. How to Make Your Request for an Official Presidential Greeting How can you go about making an official request for an official presidential greeting? There are several ways you can request a presidential greeting directly from the White House. There are several ways to make your official request. There are three basic routes for requesting an official presidential greeting from the White House. You can make your official request for a presidential greeting through fax, by postal mail, or by filling out an online email form. Although no one method appears to be considerable more effective than any other, some successful recipients of an official presidential greeting swear that you are more likely to receive a response if you put in your official request through postal mail or fax. However, this may just be a hunch, because it seems that it may seem harder to ignore a written request rather than a virtual email request. As with anything important, you will want to make your request for an official presidential greeting way ahead of time. For instance, if you want to request an official presidential wedding greeting, you will want to make your request well ahead of time. What Kind of Official Presidential Greetings is You Allowed to Request? Although there is no set guideline about what kind of greetings you can request, there are many standard issue presidential greetings. These include birthday greetings, 50th wedding anniversary and higher, births, Bar Mitzvahs, Bat Mitzvahs, weddings, scouting awards and others. Official Guidelines for Requesting Your Greetings For the official guidelines on how to request official presidential greetings from the White House, check out the official White House website. There you will find the official guidelines on how to request greetings from the White House, as well as how to extend an official invitation to the White House. In general, here are some things to keep in mind. The White House will only send out official greetings to U.S. citizens. You must provide the following information: name of the honoree, address of the honoree, form of address, date of birth, birthday, wedding or anniversary, and the requestor's name and daytime phone number. Be aware that the numbers of requests you can make are limited on a per day basis. Requests for multiple institutional requests must be make by fax or mail on official letterhead. When can you expect your official presidential greeting? In general, greetings will be mailed in approximately 14 days prior to the event that is being recognized by the greeting.
Find a copyright lawyer How to find copyright lawyer Finding a copyright lawyer isn?t as hard as it use to be, not as long as you actually know how to find a copyright lawyer. Today, there are more copyright lawyers popping up than there were 10 years ago. It seems that having a copyright or needing to protect one has become very popular with the way our technology is advancing. One way to find a copyright lawyer is to simply type the phrase, ?copyright lawyer? into a search engine and click on a few links. Many pages will actually allow you to choose the state in which you live to find one nearby. You?ll may even be given a choice of cities to choose from and if you are lucky enough one will be the actual town you live in. If not that is fine too, most copyright lawyers will have a phone number or an email address for you to contact them. Chances are they may even be willing to work with you online instead of you having to drive down and meet with them. Copyright lawyers know the world is changing and that most people searching for them want someone that actually practices what they preach. They want someone that knows the internet and is up-to-date with the times, not someone that has a degree in the field but only does it as a hobby. You want them because they?ve done several cases and know what they are doing and will have the time to do it. Which is probably why many people are able to find copyright lawyer homepages or their own websites, which means getting to know the lawyer before they even call them. Search the lawyers name and find out all there is to know about them before you hire him/her. You don?t want someone that has a lot of complaints about; you want the person that has high praises. When you are trying to find a copyright lawyer keep in mind exactly what it is you need them for. There are certain types of copyright lawyers they deal with different areas such as lyrics, stories, website designs and many other forms. For instance if you have just found out that someone has copied an article or a blog you have out there in cyberspace you may want to find a copyright lawyer that deals with copyright infringement, maybe a intellectual property lawyer. If you aren?t sure if you have stuff out there that is being copied you may want to check over at copyscape.com. Before you find a copyright lawyer you should make sure you have all your information in order. If you are insisting someone else is using your stuff, make sure you have proof. One good way to do this is by marking the date you wrote it and then sealing it in an envelope and mailing it to yourself. Making sure to never open the sealed envelope. Make sure any work you do online is saved to a disk so you?ll always have proof. Your lawyer should be able to tell you everything you need before meeting with him/her. Finding a lawyer wasn?t hard and you even learned how to find out if he/she is any good by browsing the internet. Don?t just take them at their word, find out for sure. Or if you are lucky enough, you may know someone that has already used one and can recommend a good one for you. Now that you know how to find a copyright lawyer, you just need to make sure you can afford him/her.